This list/table provides an overview of the most significant map projections, including those listed on Wikipedia. It is sortable by the main fields. Inclusion in the table is subjective, as there is no definitive list of map projections.
Projection  Images  Type  Properties  Creator  Year  Notes 

Equirectangular 
Cylindrical  Compromise  Marinus of Tyre  120 (c.)  Simplest geometry; distances along meridians are conserved. Plate carrée: special case having the equator as the standard parallel. 

Mercator 
Cylindrical  Conformal  Gerardus Mercator  1569  Lines of constant bearing (rhumb lines) are straight, aiding navigation. Areas inflate with latitude, becoming so extreme that the map cannot show the poles.  
Gauss–Krüger 
Cylindrical  Conformal  Carl Friedrich GaussJohann Heinrich Louis Krüger  1822  This transverse, ellipsoidal form of the Mercator is finite, unlike the equatorial Mercator. Forms the basis of the Universal Transverse Mercator system.  
Gall stereographic 
Cylindrical  Compromise  James Gall  1885  Intended to resemble the Mercator while also displaying the poles. Standard parallels at 45°N/S. Braun is horizontally stretched version with scale correct at equator. 

Miller 
Cylindrical  Compromise  Osborn Maitland Miller  1942  Intended to resemble the Mercator while also displaying the poles.  
Lambert cylindrical equalarea  Cylindrical  Equalarea  Johann Heinrich Lambert  1772  Standard parallel at the equator. Aspect ratio of ? (3.14). Base projection of the cylindrical equalarea family.  
Behrmann  Cylindrical  Equalarea  Walter Behrmann  1910  Horizontally compressed version of the Lambert equalarea. Has standard parallels at 30°N/S and an aspect ration of 2.36.  
HoboDyer  Cylindrical  Equalarea  Mick Dyer  2002  Horizontally compressed version of the Lambert equalarea. Very similar are Trystan Edwards and Smyth equal surface (= Craster rectangular) projections with standard parallels at around 37°N/S. Aspect ratio of ~2.0.  
Gall–Peters 
Cylindrical  Equalarea  James Gall(Arno Peters)  1855  Horizontally compressed version of the Lambert equalarea. Standard parallels at 45°N/S. Aspect ratio of ~1.6. Similar is Balthasart projection with standard parallels at 50°N/S.  
Sinusoidal 
Pseudocylindrical  Equalarea  (Several; first is unknown)  1600(c.)  Meridians are sinusoids; parallels are equally spaced. Aspect ratio of 2:1. Distances along parallels are conserved.  
Mollweide 
Pseudocylindrical  Equalarea  Karl Brandan Mollweide  1805  Meridians are ellipses.  
Eckert II  Pseudocylindrical  Equalarea  Max EckertGreifendorff  1906  
Eckert IV  Pseudocylindrical  Equalarea  Max EckertGreifendorff  1906  Parallels are unequal in spacing and scale; outer meridians are semicircles; other meridians are semiellipses.  
Eckert VI  Pseudocylindrical  Equalarea  Max EckertGreifendorff  1906  Parallels are unequal in spacing and scale; meridians are halfperiod sinusoids.  
Goode homolosine  Pseudocylindrical  Equalarea  John Paul Goode  1923  Hybrid of Sinusoidal and Mollweide projections. Usually used in interrupted form. 

Kavrayskiy VII  Pseudocylindrical  Compromise  Vladimir V. Kavrayskiy  1939  Evenly spaced parallels. Equivalent to Wagner VI horizontally compressed by a factor of .  
Robinson  Pseudocylindrical  Compromise  Arthur H. Robinson  1963  Computed by interpolation of tabulated values. Used by Rand McNally since inception and used by NGS 1988–98.  
Tobler hyperelliptical  Pseudocylindrical  Equalarea  Waldo R. Tobler  1973  A family of map projections that includes as special cases Mollweide projection, Collignon projection, and the various cylindrical equalarea projections.  
Wagner VI  Pseudocylindrical  Compromise  K.H. Wagner  1932  Equivalent to Kavrayskiy VII vertically compressed by a factor of .  
Collignon  Pseudocylindrical  EqualArea  Édouard Collignon  1865 (c.)  Depending on configuration, the projection also may map the sphere to a single diamond or a pair of squares.  
HEALPix  Pseudocylindrical  Equalarea  Krzysztof M. Górski  1997  Hybrid of Collignon + Lambert cylindrical equalarea  
Aitoff  Pseudoazimuthal  Compromise  David A. Aitoff  1889  Stretching of modified equatorial azimuthal equidistant map. Boundary is 2:1 ellipse. Largely superseded by Hammer.  
Hammer 
Pseudoazimuthal  Equalarea  Ernst Hammer  1892  Modified from azimuthal equalarea equatorial map. Boundary is 2:1 ellipse. Variants are oblique versions, centred on 45°N.  
Winkel tripel  Pseudoazimuthal  Compromise  Oswald Winkel  1921  Arithmetic mean of the equirectangular projection and the Aitoff projection. Standard world projection for the NGS 1998–present.  
Van der Grinten  Other  Compromise  Alphons J. van der Grinten  1904  Boundary is a circle. All parallels and meridians are circular arcs. Usually clipped near 80°N/S. Standard world projection of the NGS 192288.  
Equidistant conic projection 
Conic  Equidistant  Based onPtolemy’s 1st Projection  100 (c.)  Distances along meridians are conserved, as is distance along one or two standard parallels^{[1]}  
Lambert conformal conic  Conic  Conformal  Johann Heinrich Lambert  1772  
Albers conic  Conic  EqualArea  Heinrich C. Albers  1805  Two standard parallels with low distortion between them.  
Werner  Pseudoconical  Equalarea  Johannes Stabius  1500 (c.)  Distances from the North Pole are correct as are the curved distances along parallels.  
Bonne  Pseudoconical, cordiform  Equalarea  Bernardus Sylvanus  1511  Parallels are equally spaced circular arcs and standard lines. Appearance depends on reference parallel. General case of both Werner and sinusoidal  
Bottomley  Pseudoconical  Equalarea  Henry Bottomley  2003  Alternative to the Bonne projection with simpler overall shape Parallels are elliptical arcs Appearance depends on reference parallel. 

American polyconic  Pseudoconical  Ferdinand Rudolph Hassler  1820 (c.)  Distances along the parallels are preserved as are distances along the central meridian.  
Azimuthal equidistant 
Azimuthal  Equidistant  Abu Rayhan Biruni  1000 (c.)  Used by the USGS in the National Atlas of the United States of America.Distances from centre are conserved.  
Gnomonic  Azimuthal  Gnonomic  Thales(possibly)  580 BC (c.)  All great circles map to straight lines. Extreme distortion far from the center. Shows less than one hemisphere.  
Lambert azimuthal equalarea  Azimuthal  EqualArea  Johann Heinrich Lambert  1772  The straightline distance between the central point on the map to any other map is the same as the straightline 3D distance through the globe between the two points.  
Stereographic  Azimuthal  Conformal  Hipparchos(deployed)  200 BC (c.)  Map is infinite in extent with outer hemisphere inflating severely, so it is often used as two hemispheres. Maps all small circles to circles, which is useful for planetary mapping to preserve the shapes of craters.  
Orthographic  Azimuthal  Hipparchos(deployed)  200 BC (c.)  View from an infinite distance.  
Vertical perspective  Azimuthal  Matthias Seutter (deployed)  1740  View from a finite distance. Can only display less than a hemisphere.  
Twopoint equidistant  Azimuthal  Equidistant  Hans Maurer  1919  Two “control points” can be arbitrarily chosen. The two straightline distances from any point on the map to the two control points are correct.  
Peirce quincuncial  Other  Conformal  Charles Sanders Peirce  1879  
Guyou hemisphereinasquare projection  Other  Conformal  Émile Guyou  1887  
B.J.S. Cahill’s Butterfly Map  Polyhedral  Compromise  Bernard Joseph Stanislaus Cahill  1909  
CahillKeyes projection  Polyhedral  Compromise  Gene Keyes  1975  
Dymaxion map  Polyhedral  Compromise  Buckminster Fuller  1943  
Craig retroazimuthal 
Retroazimuthal  James Ireland Craig  1909  
Hammer retroazimuthal, front hemisphere  Retroazimuthal  Ernst Hammer  1910  
Hammer retroazimuthal, back hemisphere  Retroazimuthal  Ernst Hammer  1910  
Littrow  Retroazimuthal  Joseph Johann Littrow  1833 